“Напад у Керчі – це прояв набагато небезпечнішої тенденції”,- Олександр Кореньков

Розстріл у Керченському політехнічному коледжі став першим випадком так званого school shooting на території України.

Напад у Керчі має свої особливості, головна з яких – використання вибухівки. Це навіть спонукало окремих експертів кваліфікувати цей напад як терористичний акт. Але є кілька “але”.

Перше. Напад у Керчі – не теракт, а масовий розстріл. Теракт завжди має на меті донесення певної політичної позиції, певних поглядів. Саме тому славнозвісний терорист Брейвік, який у 2011 році застрелив 77 людей, не покінчив життя самогубством, а навпаки використав суд як трибуну для пропаганди своїх політичних поглядів.

Терористи-смертники, яких активно використовує “Ісламська держава”, як правило залишають після себе відеозаписи з поясненням своєї мотивації та своїх поглядів.Брюс Хоффман, визнаний науковий авторитет, визначає тероризм як “використання або загрозу використання насильства для досягнення політичних цілей”. Інший дослідник, Брайан Форст, додає до цього визначення такі складові, як “навмисне використання насильства”, “проти цивільного населення або цілей, які мають символічне значення”, з метою “залякати або знищити”, “викликати політичні зміни”.

Тобто обов’язковими складовими тероризму є:

– сплановане та свідоме використання насильства;

– для залякування населення;

– задля досягнення саме політичних цілей.

Саме політична мотивація відрізняє терористів від скулшутерів (від словосполучення – school shooting). Мотивація останніх інша.За даними досліджень, викладених у Safe School Initiative Report, найпоширенішою метою нападників є відплата.У 75% це відплата за буллінг, образи та переслідування з боку інших. Бажання помсти – основний мотив.

Друге. Виконавець нападу в Керчі, скоріше за все, був психічно здоровою людиною. Про це свідчить планування, організація та виконання нападу.Йому не тільки вдалося отримати дозвіл на зброю, придбати її та приховати від рідних та оточення. Йому вдалося змайструвати велику кількість вибухівки – лише на фото вмісту рюкзака вбивці видно 10 саморобних вибухових пристроїв.Той факт, що він не використав її, свідчить скоріше про те, що у вбивці після перших хвилин у стані афекту здали нерви. Вбивця в Керчі діяв впевнено, послідовно та свідомо.

Третє. Виконавець нападу, найімовірніше, був одинаком. Про це свідчить велика кількість набоїв та вибухівки, яку він приніс із собою.Всупереч поширеним конспірологічним версіям щодо організації нападу, одинак міг вбити таку велику кількість людей, використовуючи лише вогнепальну зброю.У 1966 році колишній морський піхотинець США з даху багатоповерхівки відкрив вогонь по студентах Техаського університету. За півтори години він вбив 16 та поранив 31 людину.

Олександр Кореньков, директор Міжнародного центру дослідження проблем безпеки

У 2007 році у Вірджинії в кампусі Політехнічного інституту аспірант відкрив вогонь з двох напівавтоматичних пістолетів, вбивши 32 та поранивши 17 людей. Уже цього року, у лютому, колишній учень Вищої школи у Флориді лише за шість хвилин вбив з рушниці 17 осіб та стільки ж поранив.

Ці випадки свідчать, що одинак навіть без використання вибухівки може вбити велику кількість людей.

Чи можна було запобігти цьому нападові?

Нападник у Керчі неодноразово повідомляв оточуючих про свої плани. Так роблять 70% усіх скулшутерів у США.

Крім того, нападники, як правило, репетирують свої дії. Це може бути перегляд сцен розстрілу і програвання сценарію нападу в комп’ютерних іграх.

Інша справа, що оточуючі зазвичай не звертають на це увагу.

Належна увага до такої поведінки дитини, особливо якщо вона замкнена в собі, недружня до оточуючих, цікавиться зброєю та сценами насилля, може на ранніх етапах попередити можливі трагічні події.

Інше питання – додаткові заходи безпеки в школі. З досвіду США, озброєна охорона, відеокамери, рамки на вході до навчального закладу можуть допомогти попередити напад, однак не гарантують безпеку на 100%.

Нарешті величезне значення має інформування та підготовка самих учнів до подібних ситуацій. Як видно з одного відео нападу в Керчі, після вибуху, навіть чуючи постріли всередині коледжу, учні, які перебували на дворі, прямували до епіцентру події замість того, щоб тікати звідти.

Люди часто не знають, як вести себе у випадку потрапляння в небезпечну ситуацію. Держава у свою чергу не завжди знаходить час та ресурси для такої просвітницької роботи.

Прикладом простої інструкції є спеціальний чат-бот, який ми розробили саме для навчання людей моделям поведінки – @MyFriendAlertsBot.

Робота в цьому напрямку має бути систематичною. Люди повинні знати, що робити при обстрілах, пострілах, у полоні терористів та інших небезпечних ситуаціях.

Ці заходи можуть значно зменшити напади, аналогічні керченському. Вони потрібні вже сьогодні, особливо враховуючи те, що подібні вбивці завжди знаходять своїх послідовників.

Джерело : УП

78 thoughts on ““Напад у Керчі – це прояв набагато небезпечнішої тенденції”,- Олександр Кореньков

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